Massive characterisation of pollutant emissions produced by on-road traffic in Krakow

In June 2019 Opus conducted the first remote sensing project in Poland.  More than 200,000 vehicles were measured in 14 days. The project has been one of the most successful campaigns ever carried out in Europe.

 

Opus RSE partnered with polish local company TurboSpec to carry out the project. 

 

 

The reults have helped the authorities to find out some incredible facts about the city's private and public circulatingfleet.



Faster than ever

 

The project had to start 10 days after granting the project to Opus and Turbospec. We had to do the planning, prepare the delivery of the equipment and all related project preparations in a record time. 

 

The project was performed on time, with no delay and incredible results. The measurements were also done during an extreme heatwave and with some heavy rainny days.

 

Locations

 The Remote Sensing Devices were placed at 10 different locations in Krakow. This mobility can only be achieved with Opus RSD AccuScan, which is small and easy to set-up.

 

The measurement sites represent important traffic areas inside and around the city, with the aim of making a representative characterisation of on-road traffic emissions. Some locations were selected to measure more buses, in order to analyze more closely this type of vehicle.


FIELD CAMPAIGN

Results

 It was particularly relevant finding that the average emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) from the public buses were really low, even compared with the typical passenger car circulating in the city.

 

On the other hand, we found out a serious problem with the private buses. In Krakow the local buses are operated by the City Council, but there are also many regional buses that belong to private companies which circulate by the city streets and motorways. There is no strong control over these companies. We discovered that emissions from private buses are much higher than the equivalent public buses. This shows there is a serious maintenance issue.

 

Krakow fleet distribution:

NOx traffic emissions:

Average g of NOx per kg fuel from Diesel vehicles
Average g of NOx per kg fuel from Diesel vehicles
Average NOx (g/km) of diesel passenger cars versus Euro Standard limits
Average NOx (g/km) of diesel passenger cars versus Euro Standard limits
Average NOx (g/km) of petrol passenger cars versus Euro Standard limits
Average NOx (g/km) of petrol passenger cars versus Euro Standard limits
Average NOx (g/kWh) of buses versus Euro Standard limits
Average NOx (g/kWh) of buses versus Euro Standard limits

PM traffic emissions:

Average g of PM per kg of fuel from Diesel vehicles
Average g of PM per kg of fuel from Diesel vehicles
Average PM (g/kg) of passenger cars by fuel type and Euro Standard
Average PM (g/kg) of passenger cars by fuel type and Euro Standard

The results of the project helped to shape the current Low Emission Zone, which begins operations on 1 January 2020. Thanks to the information from the RSDs, the access rules will be quickly tightened up. The LEZ Barcelona/City environmental zone covers an area of around 92 km² in the municipality of Barcelona, so it will be one of the largest Low Emission Zones in Europe.


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