The vehicles are homologated in controlled tests. Although a more stringent new regulation has just entered into force, real life is harder than testing scenarios and vehicles emit more than during their type-approval tests. That is why vehicles' emissions must be measured in real traffic conditions, in a non-intrusive and massive way.
Air pollutants, especially particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), are a serious risk to public health. Numerous studies have identified a direct relationship between poor air quality and the number of hospital admissions and premature deaths. These reports have quantified in billions of Euros the economic impact of air pollution in Europe. Air pollution causes 400,000 premature deaths in Europe every year, according to the European Environment Agency (EEA). Bad air quality is problem #1 in Europe.
The harmful effects of transport sector are one of the most worrisome problems in Europe. Transport produces almost a quarter of Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and is the main cause of noise and air pollution in cities.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution causes:
43% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
29% of lung cancer deaths
17% of cases of acute respiratory infection
From all sources of pollutant emissions, road traffic has become more relevant in the cities. Its importance grows with the population density. Road traffic may contribute with up to 80% of total pollutants in urban areas, so monitoring, controlling and reducing the emissions from motor vehicles must be a priority for the Public Administrations.
Therefore, there is a need to design and manage transport and mobility in a smarter way. By individually identifying the emissions of each vehicle, it is possible to prevent the circulation of highly polluting vehicles.